This family contains the vast majority of octopuses, with more than 200 valid species. They are bottom-living, muscular animals with eight arms. Each arm possesses 1 or 2 rows of suckers. All species lack fins and rows of cirri adjacent to suckers. The internal shell is reduced to a pair of small rod-like stylets or is absent. One arm of the third arm pair (typically right-hand side) is modified in mature males (known as the hectocotylized arm). This arm bears a gutter-like groove (spermatophore groove) along the ventral margin of the arm and a modified arm tip (ligula) used to grip and pass spermatophores to the female. A funnel locking apparatus is absent.
Genus: Callistoctopus Iw. Taki, 1964
Species: Callistoctopus luteus Sasaki, 1929
Large and muscular species. Arms are 4 to 6 times longer than mantle length. Dorsal arms longer than ventral arms (1>2>3>4). The depths of webs are around 15 to 20 % of the arm length. Web is deepest between dorsal arms and shallowest between ventral arms. Web margins extend along most of arm length. Two rows of suckers on each arm. In larger animals, around 180 to 240 suckers on each normal arm. Enlarged suckers absent. Right third arm of males hectocotylized, around 60% length of opposite arm. Ligula is short and elongate, around 4% of arm length. Calamus small. Hectocotylized arm with 80 to 90 suckers. The color is from orange to red with numerous small white spots scattered over all dorsal and lateral surfaces. False-eye spots (ocelli) absent. Sculpture: Skin sculptured with large patches (which can be raised as large papillae), interspersed by small fine patches. Skin ridge around lateral margin of mantle absent.
Polypus luteus Sasaki, 1929
Callistoctopus luteus Sasaki 1929- [Gleadall (1997): 503-513; Norman & Hochberg (2005): 127-154; Jereb et al (2014): 103]
At present known only from Taiwan and Philippines, south to Sulawesi, Indonesia, and Thailand
This taxon has not yet been assessed for the IUCN Red List.